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Core Technologies

Recent Research

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Other Projects

  • Organelle Transport
    • PH-ncd
    • U446-PH
      • Mini-motors (U446-PH) with a PH domain transport vesicles and liposomes in vitro. Velocities are consistant with the velocities of Unc104 in a microtubule gliding assay (plus-end directed, 1.5 um/s). When the PH is attchached to the minus-end directed motor, ncd, cargo is transported in the opposite direction (to the microtubule minus-end) with the directionality and velocity consistent with ncd in a gliding assay (minus-end directed, 0.17 um/s). See Reconsituting Organelle Transport page.


Other Movies

  • Myosin
    • Animated model for myosin-based motility
      • This animation was prepared by Graham Johnson ( and is based upon atomic structures representing different nucleotide states. For more details on the molecular mechanism and how the animation was prepared, see citation. (pdf) - Vale, R.D., Milligan, R.A. (2000) The way things move: looking under the hood of molecular motor proteins. Science 288: 88-95.
  • Other
    • Microtubule Gliding-1984
    • Ash1
      • Localization of Ash1 mRNA to the bud tip of S. cerevisiae. Ash1 mRNA (expressed from its native promoter) was labelled by an amplified in situ hybridization protocol and then imaged using deconvolution microscopy. The 3-D view in this movie shows that Ash1 mRNA is found in particles that are concentrated near the cell cortex. (pdf) - Takizawa, Peter A., Sil, Anita, Swedlow, Jason R., Herskowitz, Ira and Vale, Ronald D. (1997) Actin-dependent localization of an RNA encoding a cell-fate determinant in yeast. Nature 389: 90-93.
    • in vitro microtubule gliding
      • Kinesin, expressed in bacteria, is absorbed onto the surface of a glass slide. Rhodamine-labelled microtubules and ATP (1mM) are introduced, and the adsorbed motors transport the microtubules across the surface. Motors are randomly adsorbed, but only motors that are oriented properly with respect to the microtubule axis are able to produce motion.
    • Single molecule kinesin
      • Kinesin fused to green fluorescence protein (S65T mutant) was expressed in bacteria. Single molecule detection of the kinesin-GFP was accomplished using a total internal reflection microscope. The first sequence shows red microtubule tracks (cy5-labelled sea urchin axonemes illuminated with a HeNe laser). The next sequence shows individual kinesin molecules (green spots)moving along these tracks. The kinesin molecules are only clearly visible once they bind to the microtubule; molecules in solution move rapidly by Brownian motion and only produce a general background haze. In the third sequence (black-and-white), the kinesin-GFP was translated in vitro and added to the microtubules. Active, unidirectional motion is seen along several axonemes.
    • Dissociated AxoPlasm-1983
    • Movies of cytoskeletal proteins in S-2 cells


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last updated 4/9/07